1. Present Simple
main verb ( for he/she/it: main verb + s)
We use the present simple
1.1. For daily routines: Sam leaves for work at 7 a.m.
1.2. For habits and repeated actions: Joe goes to the gym thrice a week.
1.3. For permanent states: Henry works for his uncle's company.
1.4. For facts, laws of nature and general truths: The sun rises in the east.
1.5. For timetables and programmes (future meaning): The course starts in September.
1.6. For reviews/sports commentaries/narrative: Johnson passes to Miles, Miles shoots... It's a goal!
1.7. For exclamatory sentences: Here comes the boss!
Time expressions used with the Present Simple: always, usually, often, sometimes, rarely, never, every day/week/month/year/Monday, in the morning/afternoon/evening, once/twice/thrice a day/week/month/year, etc.
2. Present Continuous
am/is/are + -ing form
We use the Future Continuous
2.1. For actions happening at the moment of speaking: Sue is talking on the phone now.
2.2. For actions happening around the time of speaking or temporary situations: I'm staying with my grandma at the moment.
2.3. For fixed arrangements in the near future: I'm meeting Mary at 6 p.m. on Monday.
2.4. For developing or changing situations: The prices are going up.
2.5. For frequently repeated actions to express annoyance or criticism: He's always losing his keys.
Time expressions used with the present continuous: now, at the moment, at present, this week, these days, still, etc.
Stative verbs do not usually have a continuous form: like, love, hate, want, know, understand, think, believe, have (possess), etc.
3. Present Perfect
have/has + past participle
We use the present perfect
3.1. For recently completed actions focusing on the result in the present: I have washed my car. It's clean now.
3.2. For actions that happened at an unstated time in the past. It is not important when exactly the action happened: I've seen John recently.
3.3. For actions or states that began in the past and are not finished yet: Lily has worked in this cafe for 10 years.
3.4. For actions that happened at an unfinished period of time: I have drunk three cups of coffee this morning (it is still morning).
3.5. For personal experiences: That's the fastest train I have ever travelled by.
Time expressions used with the present perfect: already, before, yet, just, ever, never, for, since, this week, this year, today, etc.
4. Present Perfect Continuous:
have/has been + -ing form
We use the Present Perfect Continuous:
4.1. For an action that started in the past and continues up to the present if we are interested in the duration of the action: I've been working on this project since Monday.
4.2. For an action that has recently stopped and is connected with the present: It has been snowing all night. Everything's covered in snow.
4.3. For actions repeated over a period of time: Linda has been working overtime a lot recently.
4.4. To show that we are angry or annoyed, or to express criticism: Someone has been looking through my documents!